# Activity Book 7: Secondary Level

Best suited for ages 16+

## Atomic Energy Math

Complete the math problems using atomic numbers.

a. Cl + O + Ne = __________
b. H + Ac + K = ___________
c. K + N + I + Fe = __________
d. Sn + O + B = _____________

Complete the math problems using atomic mass (rounded to the nearest one).

e. H + He + Li = __________
f. O + F + Ne = __________
g. Si + S + Ar = ___________
h. Be + C + Al = ___________

Complete the math problem using atomic numbers.

i. ____ + _____ + ______ = 30
j. ____ + _____ + ______ = 40
k. ____ + _____ + ______ = 50

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## Investigation: Determining the Best Protection from UV

Materials

• UV meter(s)
• three (3) different types of fabric (e.g. cotton, synthetic, silk) in the same colour
• three (3) different colours of fabric of the same type and weight (e.g. black, white, and red cotton)
• three (3) pairs of sunglasses
• several leaves and/or types of shade (e.g., buildings, tree(s), umbrella)
• calculator

Method

1. Choose a day when the UV Index is forecast to be 6 or greater.
2. Identify variables and assign to groups, each with their own UV meter.
3. Make predictions about which materials or shade give the best protection against UV.
4. Put the samples in a random order.
5. Take a UV reading with the UV meter in direct sunlight and record the value.
6. Place each sample, one at a time, on the UV meter over the sensor. Ensure that the sensor is completely covered. Do not touch the sensor with your fingers. To sample types of shade, move the UV meter from direct sunlight to the designated shaded area before taking the reading.
7. Wait a minute for the UV meter to adjust between samples.
8. Calculate the percentage of UV transmitted through each type of fabric sunglasses or shade compared to the full sun reading.

UV transmitted (%) = (reading under sample ÷ full sun reading) x 100%
UV reduction (%) = 100% - UV transmitted

Questions

• Which fabrics give the best protection against UV?
• Which sunglasses give the best protection against UV?
• What type of leaf or shade gives the best protection against UV?
• Why is it important to change only one variable at a time?
• Why should the samples be in a random order?
• How would variable cloudiness affect the results?

Explanation

The more of the sky that is blocked by trees and other objects, the lower the amount of UV.

In general, denim and polyester protect better than cotton; tight weaves, better than loose; dark colours, better than white; and heavy fabrics better than light. Sunglasses show approximately how well a pair of sunglasses protects your eyes from UV-B.

Accurate UV testing for sunglasses can only be conducted by an optometrist or ophthalmologist. UV-A is also harmful to the eye. When buying sunglasses, it's wise to check the label for the degree of protection from both types of UV.

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## Pesticides – What’s Bugging You?

Pesticides are substances used to prevent, destroy or repel pests. However sometimes pesticides can be very harmful to people and pets, especially if they are not used correctly. It's important to store pesticides properly and follow the instructions carefully.

Crossword

Fill in the answers to the questions across and down.

Across
1. If pesticides are not used properly you could get what?
3. Cabinets should be this when pesticides are stored in them?
5. What foods need to be washed to remove all traces of pesticides?
7. Pesticides can be harmful to people and these.
9. If you wear this you may not need as much bug spray.

Down
2. Common name for a chemical that is harmful to your health.
4. Term used to describe chemicals that kill insects.
6. When you put this on, keep it away from your eyes and mouth.
8. When you come inside make sure you take off or wipe these.
10. What should you do if an area has been recently sprayed with pesticides?

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## Tsunami Quiz

Complete each question.

1. A tsunami is always triggered by an earthquake.
a. True
b. False

2. Where did Canada's worst tsunami disaster occur?
a. East Coast
b. West Coast

3. The word tsunami is Japanese for:
a. Giant tidal wave
b. Harbour wave
c. Small wave
d. Ocean current

4. A tsunami is always triggered by a natural disturbance.
a. True
b. False

5. The 1929 Grand Banks of Newfoundland tsunami was generated by:
a. An earthquake
b. Volcano
c. Landslide
d. A meteor impact

6. Historically, the most common trigger of tsunamis in Canada has been landslides.
a. True
b. False

7. A tsunami is related to tides. That is why it is called a giant tidal wave.
a. True
b. False

8. An earthquake in the ocean will automatically trigger a tsunami.
a. True
b. False

9. We can find geological evidence of past tsunamis in Canada.
a. True
b. False

10. The worst Canadian tsunami disaster occurred off the coast of Newfoundland.
a. True
b. False

11. Which part of Canada can be most affected by a tsunami?
a. Rivers
b. Streams
c. Lakes
d. Coasts

12. A tsunami can be prevented.
a. True
b. False

13. It is possible to predict how far inland a tsunami wave will reach.
a. True
b. False

14. There are many signs that a tsunami will hit an area when it is approaching a coast.
a. True
b. False

15. Tsunamis are triggered by what?
a. Earthquakes
b. Volcanic eruptions
c. Undersea landslides
d. All of the above

16. Tsunami waves usually reach heights of up to _______ metres.
a. 5
b. 15
c. 30
d. 60

17. Ships far out at sea can detect tsunamis easily and radio ahead with warnings.
a. True
b. False

18. Tsunamis travel radially outward from its epicentre.
a. True
b. False

19. Quickly advancing front waves of incoming tides, found in shallow estuaries, are called:
a. Tidal waves
b. Tidal bores
c. Sea surges
d. Seiches

20. The sea tide draining away from shore is a sign of an approaching tsunami.
a. True
b. False

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Goal

To show how the climate varies across a country with the size and geography of Canada.

Materials

• Copies of the blank map of Canada
• The list of locations with climatic data
• An atlas

Method - part 1

Using the list, have your students write the average daily high temperature for July for each location beside the appropriate dot on the map. They may need to use the atlas to locate communities correctly.

As an optional exercise, you might ask your students to analyse this map to reinforce the differences between various parts of the country. To help you with the analysis, here are 4 common meteorological terms.

• Isopleth -- a general term describing a line that joins points of equal value.
• Isotherm -- a line which joins points of equal temperature.
• Isohyet -- a line which joins points of equal amounts of precipitation.
• Isobar -- a line which joins points of equal pressure - this is the type of line normally drawn by forecasters on a weather map.

To analyse the map using temperatures, have your students draw isotherms at 5° intervals. Again, an isotherm joins points of equal temperature. For example, if 1 community has an average daily high of 23°C and the neighbouring community has an average of 17°C, then you know that at some point between them, the average is 20°C.

Method - part 2

To analyse the map using the amount of snowfall take a second blank map, and still using the list, have your students plot the average annual snowfall for each community. They could analyse this map as well by drawing isohyets at intervals of 100 centimetres (cm), 200 cm, and so on. For instance if 1 community has an average annual snowfall of 139 cm and the next closest community has an average of 228 cm, then you know that somewhere between the 2 lies a point with 200 cm. When your map is complete, it will resemble a contour map, the kind atlases contain showing elevations.

When the maps are complete, have your students find the community that has, on average, the hottest summer days (Kamloops and Windsor) and the community that has the snowiest winters (Churchill Falls). Invite them to compare figures for different parts of the country and encourage them to discuss the roles that elevation, latitude, land forms, and large bodies of water may have on the climate. For example, Mayo in the Yukon has the same average high in July as does Lynn Lake in Manitoba. Halifax, Nova Scotia, gets twice as much snow on average as Baker Lake in the Northwest Territories.

Tips: It will be easiest to begin with the 100 cm isohyet in the north and then work southward.

Climactic Information by Province and Territory
Province/TerritoryCommunityAverage High Temperature July (°C)Average Annual Snowfall (cm)
Yukon Mayo 22 145
Watson Lake 21 219
Whitehorse 20 145
Northwest Territories Fort Smith 23 154
Fort Simpson 23 164
Inuvik 20 175
Norman Wells 22 149
Yellowknife 22 133
Baker Lake 16 130
Cambridge Bay 12 80
Clyde River 8 197
Coral Harbour 14 135
Eureka 8 53
Hall Beach 9 120
Iqaluit 12 257
British Columbia Cranbrook 26 148
Fort Nelson 23 191
Fort St. John 22 198
Kamloops 28 86
Prince George 22 234
Prince Rupert 16 143
Vancouver 22 55
Victoria 22 47
Alberta Calgary 23 135
Edmonton 23 127
Lethbridge 26 160
Medicine Hat 27 108
Fort McMurray 23 172
Edson 22 180
Cree Lake 21 180
Regina 26 107
La Ronge 23 155
Prince Albert 24 117
Manitoba Churchill 17 200
Brandon 26 106
Dauphin 25 138
Lynn Lake 22 206
Thompson 23 201
The Pas 23 170
Winnipeg 26 115
Ontario Big Trout Lake 21 233
Thunder Bay 24 196
Timmins 24 352
Moosonee 22 225
Sault Ste Marie 24 316
Windsor 28 123
Toronto 27 124
Ottawa 26 222
Quebec Kuujjuaq 17 271
Kuujjuarapik 15 238
Sept Iles 20 415
Baie Comeau 21 362
Val d'Or 23 318
Sherbrooke 25 288
Quebec City 25 337
New Brunswick Fredericton 25 241
Moncton 24 367
Prince Edward Island Charlottetown 23 339
Nova Scotia Halifax 23 261
Sydney 23 330
Newfoundland St. John's 20 322
Daniels Harbour 18 427
Happy Valley-Goose Bay 21 464
Churchill Falls 19 481
Port Aux Basques 16 316

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Atomic Energy Math

a - 35, b - 109, c- 105, d - 63, e - 12, f - 55, g - 100, h - 48. Possible answers for i - Be + Mg + Si, j - B + P + Ca, k - Mn + Ne + P

Pesticides - What's Bugging You?

Across
1. SICK
3. LOCKED
5. FRU ITS & VEGETABLES
7. PETS
9. LIGHT COLOURS
Down
2. TOXIC
4. PESTICIDE
6. INSECT REPELLENT
8. SHOES
10. STAY AWAY

Tsunami Quiz

1. b) False - A tsunami can be triggered by a landslide, earthquake, submarine landslide, meteorite impact, man-man explosion or even a structure failure such as a dam.
2. a) East Coast
3. b) Harbour Wave
4. b) False - Sometimes a tsunami can be triggered by a man-made explosion or a structure failure such as a dam collapse.
5. c) Landslide
6. a) True
7. b) False - A tsunami is not related to tides. Tides are caused by the gravitational pull from the moon.
8. b) False - The earthquake has to be strong enough to create a vertical movement in the water column.
9. a) True
10. a) True
11. d) Coasts
12. b) False - It is impossible to prevent an earthquake, meteorite impact or submarine landslide from causing a tsunami to form. However, we can mitigate or prevent the damage caused by tsunamis by relocating cities and building structures away from the coast.
13. a) True
14. b) False - The wave is not easily detected at sea. At the coast, a rapid and unexpected recession of water levels below the expected low tide can occur minutes before the shoreline is struck by a tsunami, and can be the only warning sign along coastlines that are located too far from the earthquake epicentre to have felt the shaking.
15. d) All of the Above
16. c) 30
17. b) False - The waves generated close to the epicentre are relatively small as the motion is absorbed through the entire depth of the water column and are not easily detected. In deep water the wavelength is great and amplitude is subdued.
18. a) True
19. b) Tidal Bores
20. a) True