AAFC – Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
AECL – Atomic Energy of Canada Limited
BERD – Business enterprise expenditure on research and development
CFI – Canada Foundation for Innovation
CIHR – Canadian Institutes of Health Research
CSA – Canadian Space Agency
DND – Department of National Defence
EC – Environment Canada
GDP – Gross domestic product
GERD – Gross domestic expenditure on research and development
GOVERD – Government intramural expenditure on research and development
HC – Health Canada
HERD – Higher education expenditure on research and development
IC – Industry Canada
IP – Intellectual Property
M&E– Machinery and Equipment
NRC – National Research Council Canada
NRCan – Natural Resources Canada
NSERC – Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
OECD – Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
PPP – Purchasing Power Parity
R&D – Research and development
RSA – Related scientific activities
S&T – Science and technology
SSHRC – Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada
STC – Statistics Canada
TL2 – Territorial level 2
R&D – Creative work undertaken on a systematic basis to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humankind, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.
RSA – Activities that complement and extend R&D by contributing to the generation, dissemination and application of scientific and technological knowledge.
S&T – “Science and Technology” includes both R&D and RSA and refers to the broad spectrum of activities required to generate, disseminate or apply new S&T knowledge.
Scientific Publications – Publications in the areas of health, pure and applied science.
Territorial level – Classification used by the OECD. Territorial level 2 (TL2) consists of 335 large regions across the OECD member countries. All the regions are defined within national borders and in most cases correspond to administrative regions. For Canada, TL2 regions represent the Canadian provinces.
Science and Technology Data is published yearly by Industry Canada’s Science and Innovation Sector. This publication presents a snapshot of the state of science and technology in Canada in an accessible and convenient format.
The booklet has five sections. The first section, “National,” provides a summary view of Canada’s R&D. This is followed by three sections, each covering a specific player in the national S&T system: “Government,” “Industry” and “Higher Education.” The booklet concludes with a section entitled “Canada and the World,” which describes links between Canada’s S&T activities and those in other countries around the world.
Due to the varied approaches to national collection and multilateral compilation of data, the figures used for international comparisons will often be for earlier periods than those used for domestic trends. All figures are based on the most recent, reliable data.