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Graphs and data

Supplements*
In this section, you will find figures and graphs referenced throughout the document. A list of Supplement 1 and 2 is available upon request (alex.gill@canada.ca). Please be advised, the supplements are only available in the language in which they were collected.

Figure 1

Relationship between the genomic content of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) and other Escherichia coli pathotypes. AIEC, adherent-invasive. EAEC, enteroaggregative. EIEC, enteroinvasive. EPEC, enteropathogenic. ETEC, enterotoxigenic. (Figure 1 is related to the Hybrid Pathotypes section)

Relationship between the genomic content of verotoxigenic <em>Escherichia coli</em> (VTEC) and other <em>Escherichia coli</em> pathotypes.
Descriptive Text Figure 1

Figure 1 is a Venn diagram that shows the relationship between the genome content of different groups of enteric Escherichia coli (E.coli) pathogens. The six recognised groups of enteric E. coli pathogens include, verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC), adherent-invasive E. coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, and enterotoxigenic E. coli. In the Venn diagram the largest set is the E. coli pan genome which is the total range of genes found in E. coli isolates. Within the pan genome there are six sets representing the genes common to the six specific E. coli pathogens. The set representing the VTEC pan genome is in the centre and the sets for the other five groups of pathogens are shown to overlap, indicating that a portion of the genes are shared.

Figure 2

Percentage of all Escherichia coli isolates reported to PHAC NESP categorised by serotype, 1999 to 2016. NM, Nonmotile. (Figure 2 is related to the Serotyping section)

Percentage of all <em>Escherichia coli</em> isolates reported to PHAC NESP categorised by serotype.
Descriptive Text Figure 2
Serotype 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Non-O157 typed 97 85 108 88 101 115 94 105 11 5 6 8 28 37 74 118 160 156
Untyped or Untypeable 189 52 78 34 21 28 24 15 73 38 78 69 73 114 97 64 67 60
O157:H7 and NM 2726 1831 1284 1259 1004 1085 775 1019 1867 1320 1058 405 481 486 472 458 379 415
O157 Atypical H 2 0 2 1 2 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Serotype 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Non-O157 typed 3.2% 4.3% 7.3% 6.4% 9.0% 9.3% 10.5% 9.2% 0.6% 0.4% 0.5% 1.7% 4.8% 5.8% 11.5% 18.4% 26.4% 24.7%
Untyped or Untypeable 6.3% 2.6% 5.3% 2.5% 1.9% 2.3% 2.7% 1.3% 3.7% 2.8% 6.8% 14.3% 12.5% 17.9% 15.1% 10.0% 11.1% 9.5%
O157:H7 and NM 90.4% 93.0% 87.2% 91.1% 89.0% 88.1% 86.5% 89.2% 95.7% 96.8% 92.6% 84.0% 82.6% 76.3% 73.4% 71.6% 62.5% 65.8%
O157 Atypical H 0.1% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

Figure 3

International and Canadian reports of foodborne Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli incidents with an identified food vehicle, 1982 to 2016. Data and citations in Supplement 2*.
(Figure 3 is related to the Foods Associated with VTEC illness section)

International and Canadian reports of foodborne Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli incidents.
Descriptive Text Figure 3
Year of Outbreak O157 Non-O157
1982 1 0
1983 1 0
1984 0 0
1985 2 0
1986 8 0
1987 5 0
1988 6 0
1989 7 0
1990 8 0
1991 16 0
1992 16 0
1993 19 0
1994 16 1
1995 17 2
1996 14 1
1997 3 1
1998 23 0
1999 35 1
2000 32 2
2001 17 1
2002 35 2
2003 18 0
2004 27 3
2005 31 8
2006 20 1
2007 33 7
2008 35 4
2009 31 2
2010 22 11
2011 28 9
2012 29 11
2013 32 5
2014 21 12
2015 17 8
2016 17 7

Figure 4

Canadian national incidence rate of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157, non-O157 VTEC and Non-Typed VTEC reported to NESP, 1997-2016.
(Figure 4 is related to the National Enteric Surveillance Program section)

Canadian national incidence rate of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157, non-O157 VTEC and Non-Typed VTEC reported to NESP, 1997-2016.
Descriptive Text Figure 4
Year Rate per 100,000
1997 4.09
1998 4.85
1999 4.97
2000 9.81
2001 4.3
2002 3.96
2003 3.43
2004 3.44
2005 2.48
2006 3.31
2007 3.24
2008 2.29
2009 1.82
2010 1.6
2011 1.86
2012 1.97
2013 1.81
2014 1.82
2015 1.78
2016 2.02

Table 1

Incidence of Patient Outcomes from confirmed verotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections US, 1996 to 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/foodnetfast/.
(Table 1 is related to the Features of Vulnerable Populations section)
Incidence per 100,000
Age Group Infection Hospitalization Death
<5 8.08 1.79 0.04
5-9 3.95 1.20 0.00
10-19 2.87 0.80 0.02
20-29 1.82 0.42 0.02
30-39 0.94 0.25 0.02
40-49 0.80 0.26 0.00
50-59 1.04 0.40 0.02
60-69 1.29 0.61 0.02
70+ 1.48 0.87 0.06
Male 1.90 0.57 0.01
Female 2.19 0.66 0.01

Table 2

Virulence markers and putative virulence markers of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli.
(Table 2 is related to the Verotoxin and Other Virulence Factors sections).
The Content Of This Table Is Provisional.
Target Confirmed Virulence Factor Genetic Support Encoded protein or family effector GenBank Accession Numbers
stx1a Yes Chromosomal -phage Verotoxin 1a M19473
stx1c Yes Chromosomal -phage Verotoxin 1c Z36901
stx1d Yes Chromosomal -phage Verotoxin 1d AY170851
stx1e Yes Chromosomal -phage Verotoxin 1e KF926684
stx2a Yes Chromosomal -phage Verotoxin 2a X07865
stx2b Yes Chromosomal -phage Verotoxin 2b X65949
stx2c Yes Chromosomal -phage Verotoxin 2c M59432
stx2d Yes Chromosomal -phage Verotoxin 2d AF479828
stx2e Yes Chromosomal -phage Verotoxin 2e M21534
stx2f Yes Chromosomal -phage Verotoxin 2f AJ010730
stx2g Yes Chromosomal -phage Verotoxin 2g AY286000
stx2h No Chromosomal -phage Verotoxin 2h CP022279
stx2i No Chromosomal -phage Verotoxin 2i FN252457
stx2k No Chromosomal -phage Verotoxin 2k KC339670
stx2l No Chromosomal -phage Verotoxin 2l AM904726
aaiC Yes EAEC pAA AaiC, secreted protein FN554766
adfO No O-Island 57 Adhesin AE005174
aggR Yes EAEC Chromosome (Z32523) Transcriptional activator Z18751
astA Yes Plasmid and chromosome Heat-stable enterotoxin L11241 and HE603111
bfpA No pMAR2 plasmid (NC_011603) Major structural subunit of bundle-forming pilus AB247922 to AB247935
cdt-V Yes Chromosome (AJ508930) Cytolethal distending toxin JF461073
chuAa No Chromosome Heme/hemoglobin receptor AF280396
cif D No Chromosome Deamidase AY128535
ckf No O-Island 57 Putative killer protein AE005174
ecf1 No EHEC plasmid Enzyme that enhances bacterial membrane structure NC_007414
ecf2 No EHEC plasmid Enzyme that enhances bacterial membrane structure NC_007414
efa1 No O-Island 122 EHEC factor for adherence AF159462
eae Yes LEE PI Intimin
ehaA No OI-15 Autotransporter of EHEC AE005174
ehxA No EHEC plasmid (NC_007414) Enterohemolysin AF074613
eibG No aEHEC plasmid (NC_007365) Immunoglobulin binding protein AB255744
ent/espL2 No O-Island 122 Microcolony formation and F-actin aggregation AE005174
epeA No aEHEC plasmid Serine protease autotransporter AY258503.2; NC_007365
espB No LEE PI LEE effector Z21555
espF No LEE PI LEE effector AF116900
espH No Non-LEE-encoded effector AB303061
espJ No Non-LEE-encoded effector AB303061
espK No OI-50 (prophage CP-933N) Non-LEE-encoded type III effector AE005174
espM1 No OI-71 Non-LEE-encoded type III effector AE005174
espN No OI-50 (prophage CP-933N) Non-LEE-encoded type III effector AE005174
espP No EHEC plasmid (pO157) Serine protease EspP NC_002128
espT No RhoGEF mimic
espV No OI-44 AvrA family effector AE005174
espZ No Chromosome DQ138078
etpD No pO157 Type-II effector AF074613
Iha No O-Island 43 and O-Island 48 Iron regulated adhesin; AF126104
iha_homologue No O-Island 43 and O-Island 48 Iron regulated adhesin; AF126104
irp2 No High pathogenicity island Iron-repressible protein 2 CU928185
katP No EHEC plasmid (pO26) Catalase peroxidase GQ259888
lpfAO113 No EAEC chromosome (CU928185) Long polar fimbrial protein AY057066
lpfAO26 No EAEC chromosome (CU928185) Major fimbrial subunit of LPFO26 AB161111
mapR No RhoGEF mimic CAS11490
nleA No O-Island 71 Disruption of tight junctions and protein trafficking AB303062
nleB No O-Island 122 Immunmodulation AB303062
nleB1 No Non-LEE encoded type III effector FM180568
nleB2 No O-Island 36 Non-LEE encoded type III effector NC_013008
nleC No O-Island 36 Non-LEE encoded type III effector AE005174
nleD No O-Island 36 Non-LEE encoded type III effector AE005174
nleE No O-Island 122 Non-LEE encoded type III effector AP010958
nleF No O-Island 71 Non-LEE encoded type III effector AE005174
nleG No O-Island 71 Ubiquitin ligase AB303062
nleG2–1 No O-Island 71 Ubiquitin ligase AP010953
nleG2–3 No O-Island 57 Ubiquitin ligase AP010953
nleG5–2 No O-Island 57 Ubiquitin ligase AE005174
nleG6–2 No O-Island 57 Ubiquitin ligase AE005174
nleG9 No O-Island 71 Ubiquitin ligase AP010953
nleH1 No O-Island 36 Non-LEE encoded type III effector AJA24806
nleH2 No O-Island 71 Non-LEE encoded type III effector AJA24806
ompA No Chromosome Outer Membrane Protein II V00307
paa No plasmid porcine attaching-effacing associated protein AY547306
pagC No OI-122 PagC-like membrane protein AE005174
saa No pO113 STEC autoagglunating adhesin NC_007365
sab No Plasmid STEC autotransporter (AT) mediating biofilm formation NC_007365
subA No pO113 Subtilase cytoxin NC_007414
tia No Chromosome toxigenic invasion loci A JQ994271
tir Yes LEE PI translocated intimin receptor AF013122
toxB No pO157 Homolog of efa1, adhesin AF074613
tspE4.C2 No Chromosome Esterase-lipase protein AF222188
ureC No OI-43 and OI-48 Urease-associtated protein NC002655
ureD No OI-43 and OI-48 Urease-associated protein UreD AE005174
wecA No Chromosome Polyisoprenyl-phosphate N-acetylhexosamine-1-phosphate transferase

Table 3

The number of E. coli isolates with confirmed verotoxin status, by O-type (excluding O157), submitted for characterization between 1998 and 2012 to the National Microbiology Laboratory, Winnipeg, MB, Canada (Catford et al., 2014).
(Table 3 is related to the Serotyping section).
O-type n % of total of each O-type
O26 70 14.1
O121 62 12.4
O103 55 11.0
Rough (38) or Untypable (16) 54 10.8
O111 44 8.8
O145 16 3.2
O117 11 2.2
O91 10 2.0
O5, O146, O165 9 1.8
O174 8 1.6
O8 7 1.4
O1, O113 6 1.2
O6, O48, O55, O118, O128 5 1.0
O2, O45, O69, O83, O153, O156, O177, O181 4 1.8
O43, O71, O76, O104, O119, O130 3 0.6
O28, O73, O84, O107, O110, O123, O139, O154, O179, O185 2 0.4
O4, O18, O21, O22, O38, O39, O40, O41, O49, O51, O52, O63, O68, O70, O75, O78, O79, O88, O98, O116, O136, O141, O171, O182, O183, O186, Inactive 1 0.2
Rough: isolate does not express lipopolysaccharide O chain.
Untypable: antibody reactions do not conform to serotyping scheme.

Table 4

Examples of foods internationally reported as sources of exposure to verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Data and citations in Supplement 2*.
(Table 4 is related to the Food and VTEC Exposure section).
Types Reported Food Vehicles
Animal Origin
Meat Beef, pork, mutton/lamb, bison, venison, chicken, kangaroo, turkey, pork pie, frankfurter, salami, deli meat, pepperoni, tartare, ham, kebab
Dairy Cow’s milk, Goat’s milk, cheese, ice cream, cheese curds
Seafood Salmon roe, tuna pâte, crab, salmon, lobster
Plant Origin
Fruit and Berries Apple cider, tomato, cantaloupe, grapes, watermelon, fruit salad, strawberries, blueberries, pear
Herbs Parsley, cilantro
Leafy Greens Iceberg lettuce, romaine lettuce, spinach, kale, cabbage, arugula, rocket
Mushrooms Unspecified
Nuts Walnuts, Hazelnuts
Sprouts Alfalfa, radish, fenugreek, clover, watercress, bean
Vegetables Cucumber, celery, leeks, potatoes, green beans, onions, sugar peas
Complex
Cold Prepared Bean dip, guacamole, salsa, potato salad, pasta salad, coleslaw, bean salad, tuna salad, seafood salad, chocolate mousse, soy nut butter, mixed salads
Grains/Baked Flour, brownie, cakes, cookie dough, wheat snack, pizza dough mix

Table 5

Incidents of foodborne verotoxigenic Escherichia coli illness with an identified food vehicle, internationally and in Canada, 1982 to 2018. Data and citations in Supplement 2*.
(Table 5 is related to the Foods Associated with VTEC illness section).
Total Canada
No. Incidents No. Cases No. Incidents No. Cases
Total 733 3,0786 189 3,003
Animal Origin
Meat 377 51.3% 7,269 23.6% 142 75.1% 1,683 56.0%
Beef 296 40.5% 4,877 15.8% 118 62.4% 1,044 34.8%
Bison 2 0.3% 22 0.1% 0 0.0% 0 0.0%
Chicken 6 0.8% 173 0.6% 2 1.1% 38 1.3%
Lamb/Mutton 6 0.8% 60 0.2% 0 0.0% 0 0.0%
Turkey 2 0.3% 38 0.1% 1 0.5% 36 1.2%
Venison 7 1.0% 72 0.2% 0 0.0% 0 0.0%
Kangaroo 1 0.5% 5 0 0.0% 0 0.0%
Pork 12 1.6% 328 1.1% 9 4.8% 288 9.6%
Unspecified 43 5.9% 1,694 5.5% 12 6.3% 277 9.2%
Dairy 97 13.2% 1,385 4.5% 18 9.5% 229 7.6%
Pasteurised/unspecified 25 3.4% 365 1.2% 2 1.1% 19 0.6%
Raw 72 9.8% 1,020 3.3% 16 8.5% 210 7.0%
Seafood 7 1.0% 96 0.3% 1 0.5% 3 0.1%
Plant Origin 137 18.7% 17,694 57.5% 13 6.9% 661 22.0%
Fruit and Berries 30 4.1% 1,551 5.0% 4 2.1% 166 5.5%
Leafy Greens 71 9.7% 2,675 8.7% 5 2.6% 214 7.1%
Nuts 3 0.4% 30 0.1% 2 1.1% 22 0.7%
Sprouts 18 2.5% 1,245 40.4% 1 0.5% 24 0.8%
Vegetables 11 1.5% 788 2.6% 1 0.5% 235 7.8%
Herbs 3 0.4% 150 0.5% 0 0.0% 0 0.0%
Mushrooms 1 0.1% 50 0.2% 0 0.0% 0 0.0%
Complex 116 15.8% 4,342 14.1% 15 7.9% 427 14.2%
Cold Prepared 47 6.4% 1,866 6.1% 3 1.6% 223 7.4%
Grains/Baked 10 1.4% 268 0.9% 3 1.6% 37 1.2%
Multiple 59 8.0% 2,208 7.2% 9 4.8% 167 5.6%

Table 6

Prevalence of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli in FoodNet retail samples, irrigation water and feedlot beef manure samples, 2014-2017.
(Table 6 is related to the Foods Associated with VTEC illness, FoodNet Canada and Raw Ground Beef, Pork and Veal and Precursor Materials sections).
Retail Ground Beef Retail Ground Pork Retail Veal Irrigation Water Feedlot Cattle Manure
Sampling 25 g 150 mL 1
Analytical Unit n=1/250 g n=1/1000 mL n=1/110 g
2014 n
Positive
296
5 (1.7%)
23
1 (4.4%)
ND
ND
149
41 (27.5%)
ND
ND
2015 n
Positive
387
9 (2.3%)
75
5 (6.7%)
ND
ND
188
60 (31.9%)
ND
ND
2016 n
Positive
393
5 (1.3%)
ND
ND
ND
ND
142
41 (28.9%)
78
8 (10.3%)
2017 n
Positive
382
10 (2.6%)
ND
ND
334
21 (6.3%)
116
38 (32.8%)
76
13 (17.1%)
Total n
Positive
1,458
29 (2.0%)
98
6 (6.1%)
334
21 (6.3%)
595
180 (30.3%)
154
21 (13.64%)

ND: Not done

Table 7

Summary of food monitoring studies for verotoxigenic Escherichia coli in Canada from April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2018.
(Table 7 is related to the Foods Associated with VTEC illness, Targeted Surveys Program, Raw Ground Beef, Pork and Veal and Precursor Materials, Ready-to-Eat Meats, Raw Milk Cheeses, Fresh Produce and Other Plant-Based Foods sections).
Food Type Sampling Program Lot Sampling Analytical Unit Origin Target Serotype(s) Tested Positive Serotypes
Raw ground pork, beef and veal NMMP n=5/200 g 325 ge Domestic O157:H7/NM 3,273 3 O157:H7/NM
NMMP n=5/200 g 325 ge Imported O157:H7/NM 48 0
Raw ground beef precursor NMMP N60a 325 g composite Domestic O157:H7/NM 3,834 3 O157:H7/NM
NMMP N60a 325 g composite Imported O157:H7/NM 5 0
Ready-to-eat meats NMMP
NMMP
n=5/250 g
n=5/250 g
325 ge
325 ge
Domestic
Imported
O157:H7/NM
O157:H7/NM
22
15
0
0
Raw milk cheeses NMMP
NMMP
n=5/200 g to 1 Kg
n=5/200 g to 1 Kg
125 gd
125 gd
Domestic
Imported
O157:H7/NM
O157:H7/NM
247
550
0
0
Fresh and fresh-cut ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables NMMP and FSO n=1 or 5b/ 150-250 gc 125 gd Domestic O157:H7/NM 2,617 0
NMMP n=5/150 gb 125 gd Domestic All 66 0
NMMP and FSO n=1 or 5b/ 150-250 gc 25 g for n=1 or 125 gd for n=5 Imported All 4,882 0
NMMP n=5/150 g 125 gd Imported All 187 0
Targeted Surveys n=1/250 g 25 g Both O157:H7/NM 28,715 0
Targeted Surveys n=1/250 g 25 g Both All 1,251 6 all non-O157
Nuts and nut butters Targeted Surveys (2013-2014) n=1/250 g 25 g Both O157:H7/NM 3,972 0
Dried sprouted seeds Targeted Surveys (1 year) n=1/250 g 25 g Both O157:H7/NM 322 0
Targeted Surveys (Multi year) n=1/250 g 25 g Both All 1,028 4 all non-O157
Unpasteurized juices and ciders Targeted Surveys (2016-2017) n=1/250 ml 25 g Both O157:H7/NM 1,133 0
  1. N60: thin slices of approximately 50 cm2 are collected from the surface of 60 pieces of precursor materials.
  2. NMMP and FSO samples collected by CFIA inspectors at domestic establishments and importers consisted of 5 subunits. FSO and Targeted Survey samples collected at retail consisted of 1 subunit.
  3. Institutional-sized bags of pre-products, collected by CFIA inspectors, that were destined for restaurants, hospitals or institutions, could be less than five (5) units as long as the total weight is at least 1000 g. For whole large fruits, such as cantaloupes, melons & papayas, a single fruit is sampled for each test.
  4. 5 x 25 g composite
  5. 5 x 65 g composite

Table 8

Incidents of foodborne verotoxigenic Escherichia coli reported internationally, fifteen largest outbreaks by number of cases. Data and citations in Supplement 2*.
(Table 8 is related to the Food Preparation Practices Associated with VTEC Illness section).
Location Year Serotype Cases Deaths Vehicle
Japan 1996 O157:H7 8,355 NA Radish sprouts
Germany 2011 O104:H4 3,816 54 Fenugreek sprouts
USA 2000 O157:H7 736 1 Watermelon
UK 1996 O157:H7 512 17 Various cooked meats
USA 1992 O157:H7 477 3 Hamburger
USA 2008 O111:NM 341 1 Restaurant meals
USA 1999 O157:H7 321 0 Beef
Japan 2007 O157:H7 314 NA Boxed meals
Japan 2011 O157:H7 304 1 Rice cakes
UK 2005 O157 275 1 Meat, cross contamination
UK 2010 O157 252 1 Raw leeks and potatoes
USA 2006 O157:H7 238 5 Spinach
Finland 2016 ONT:H11 237 0 Rocket salad
Canada 2008 O157:H7 235 0 Onion
Japan 1996 O157:H7 215 NA Seafood salad

ONT: O group not typable

Table 9

Incidents of foodborne verotoxigenic Escherichia coli reported in Canada, fifteen largest outbreaks by number of cases. Data and citations in Supplement 2*.
(Table 9 is related to the Food Preparation Practices Associated with VTEC Illness section)
Province Year Serotype Cases Deaths Vehicle
Ontario 2008 O157:H7 235 0 Onion
Nova Scotia 1998 O157 182 0 Salad
Quebec 2000 O157:H7 176 0 Ground Beef
Ontario 2008 O157:H7 148 0 Romaine lettuce
Canada 1999 O157:H7 143 0 Sausage
Alberta 2014 O157:H7 119 0 Pork
Saskatchewan 2001 O157:H7 79 0 Pork
Ontario 1985 O157:H7 70 17 Ham Sandwiches
Canada/USA 1996 O157:H7 70 1 Apple juice, unpasteurized
Ontario 2003 O157:H7 61 0 Haggis
Manitoba 2006 O157 57 0 Hamburger
Alberta 2004 O157:H7 51 0 Beef donair
Ontario 1986 O157:H7 47 0 Raw milk
Canada 2007 O157:H7 46 1 Ground Beef

Table 10

Levels of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli reported in outbreak associated foods.
(Table 10 is related to the Levels of VTEC in Outbreak-Associated Foods section).
Food Serotype Level Citation
Fermented Sausage O157:H7 0.4 CFU/g Tilden et al., 1996
Beef patties O157:H7 <13.7 to 675 CFU/45g Tuttle et al., 1999
Raw milk cheese O157:H7 5 to 10 CFU/g Strachan et al., 2001
Seafood sauce O157:H7 0.11 CFU/g Teunis et al., 2004
Beef patties O157:H7 1.45 MPN/g Hara-Kudo and Takatori, 2011
Beef O157:H7 23 MPN/g Hara-Kudo and Takatori, 2011
Raw milk cheese O157:H7 0.37 to 0.95 MPN/100g Gill and Oudit 2015
Beef patties O157:H7 2.2 MPN/100g Gill and Huszczynski, 2016
Minced meat cutlets (beef, pork, onions, and eggs) O157:H7 2.3 to 110 MPN/g Furukawa et al. 2018
Fermented sausage O111:H- 0.1 CFU/g Paton et al., 1996
Ice cream O26:H11
O145:H28
0.03 MPN/g
2.4 MPN/g
Buvens et al., 2011
Wheat flour O121:H19 0.17 to 0.43 MPN/100g Gill et al., 2019a

CFU: colony forming units

MPN: most probable number

Table 11

Serotypes of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from FoodNet retail samples, irrigation water and feedlot beef manure samples, 2014-2017.
(Table 11 is related to the FoodNetCanada section).
Retail Ground Beef Retail Ground Pork Retail Veal Irrigation Water Feedlot Beef Manure
All sites All sites All sites SS2-a, SS3-a SS3-a
O?:H21, O5:NM, O6:H34, O25, O26:H11, O34:H32, O39:H21, O41, O46:H38, O76:H19, O76:NM, O91:H21, O103:H2, O113:H21, O117:H2, O136:H12, O141AC:H2, O146:H8, O157:H7, O168:H8, O171:H2, O177:NM, untyped O2:NM, O8, O8:H19, O100:NM, O103:H2, O121:H10, O145:NM, O155:H20, O157:H16, O157:H7, O163:H19, O163:NM, untyped O?:H5, O2:H29, O8:H19, O55:H12, O91:NM, O109:H5, O111:NM, O113:NM, O118:H16, O132:NM, O157:H7, O160:H12, O174:H21, O185:H7 O2, O3, O4, O5, O6, O7, O8, O11, O22, O26, O34, O36, O39, O41, O43, O45, O51, O54, O55, O63, O75, O76, O83, O84, O88, O91, O98, O103, O106, O109, O111, O112, O113, O114, O115, O116, O121, O126, O128, O130, O132, O136, O145, O152, O153, O157, O159, O163, O165, O166, O168, O172, O174, O177, O178, O179, O181, O182, O183, O185, O187, O188, Untyped O2, O76, O88, O104, O109, O132, O145, O157, O163, O168, O171

Table 12

Government of Canada documents providing guidance on verotoxigenic Escherichia coli in foods.
(Table 12 is related to the Meat and Fresh Produce sections).
Title Link
Health Canada’s Guidance Document on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and E. coli O157:NM in Raw Beef https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/legislation-guidelines/guidance-documents/guidance-document-coli-0157-coli-0157-beef-2014.html
Interim guidelines for the control of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli including E. coli O157:H7 in ready to eat fermented sausages containing beef or a beef product as an ingredient https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/legislation-guidelines/guidance-documents/interim-guidelines-control-verotoxinogenic-escherichia-coli-including-colio157-fermented-sausages-beef-product-ingredient.html
Guidance on Mandatory Labelling for Mechanically Tenderized Beef https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/legislation-guidelines/guidance-documents/guidance-mandatory-labelling-mechanically-tenderized-beef.html
Management of the Risks Related to the Consumption of Donairs and Similar Products https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/legislation-guidelines/guidance-documents/management-risks-related-consumption-donairs-similar-products-gyros-kebabs-chawarmas-shawarmas-2008.html
Food and Drug Regulations- FDR- (C.R.C., c. 870), B.08.002.2 (1) https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/C.R.C.,_c._870/page-40.html#h-71
Managing Health Risks Associated with Unpasteurized Fruit Juice Cider Products https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/legislation-guidelines/policies/managing-health-risk-associated-consumption-unpasteurized-fruit-juice-cider-products.html
Code of Practice for the Production and Distribution of Unpasteurized Apple and Other Fruit Juice/Cider in Canada https://www.inspection.gc.ca/food-safety-for-industry/archived-food-guidance/processed-products/manuals/code-of-practice/eng/1340636187830/1340637184931
Policy on Managing Health Risk Associated with the Consumption of Sprouted Seeds and Beans https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/legislation-guidelines/policies/policy-managing-health-risk-associated-consumption-sprouted-seeds-beans.html


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